3 Ways to Enjoy a Carnation Flower

Carnation and carnation bud side by side.
Carnation bud and flower – one to enjoy now, one for later.

January birthdays have a wonderful flower – the carnation!

It’s available year round from floral shops for any special occasion, but those born in January get to claim it as their own special flower.

For all of us the carnation brightens the house during cold months, adorns boutonnieres or corsages for weddings and is a floral symbol adopted by states and countries.

Economical too, a bouquet of carnations lasts in the house for almost two weeks. Then it’s time to buy another bunch of the spicy scented blooms.

The carnation is one of over 300 species of the genus Dianthus. Dianthus is native to Eurasia but has been cultivated for approximately 2000 years.

Gardeners grow the small-flowered ones in their gardens. Dianthus whether perennial or annual comes in a variety of colors. There are bicolor flowers too.

Perennial dianthus thrives in a sunny garden. A few have a sweet smell.

Annual dianthus grows best in part shade of flower beds or containers. Some also have a scent.

Other Facts

Dianthus caryophyllus, the carnation, has been part of the floral scene since Greek and Roman times. There are several stories about how it got its name.

The carnation is symbolic of many world traditions and events. Here are some:

  • January birth flower
  • Mother’s Day in the U.S.
  • State flower of Ohio
  • Parents’ day in Korea
  • Weddings
  • Labor movements
  • National flower of Spain, Monaco and Slovenia
  • St. Patrick’s Day
  • Given to commemorate the first anniversary of a marriage

There are at least three ways to enjoy a carnation. Since the flower you buy at the florist or in the floral section of department stores is available all year, let’s begin with the florist carnation.

One open and one almost open carnation flower.
Choose a carnation bouquet with some flowers in full bloom, some almost in bloom and the joy will last longer.

Florist Carnation

This wonderful flower has long strong stems, grey green leaves and crinkly flower petals bunched together almost like a tissue paper flower. Put it close to your nose and catch its spicy scent.

Colors range from white, pink, red, purple, yellow to green. If you want a different color for an event the carnation is easily dyed by florists.  

In the Victorian years (Queen Victoria’s reign in British history from June 20, 1837 – January 22, 1901), flower colors became popular as a way to send a message from one person to another.

The kind of flower sent was also important. Carnation as a flower is said to represent fascination or love or distinction.

While sources agree on some meanings, not all are the same. Here are a few compiled meanings for the colors of carnations:

  • White: purity, pure love, luck
  • Light red: admiration
  • Dark red: love, affection, flashy
  • Pink: mother’s love, gratitude
  • Yellow: cheerful, disappointment, rejection
  • Purple: capricious
  • Green: St. Patrick’s Day

It’s fun to think about the meaning of a flower given or received. If you get one, what does it mean?

Have fun deciphering the message. Hopefully it’s the thought that counts and that it’s meant in goodwill!

Florist carnations last approximately two weeks due to cultivation of thicker stems and larger blooms. Here’s how to care for your bouquet:

Change the water at least once in the middle of their two week run.

Cut off the ends of the stems at a diagonal after one week. The cut stems eliminate the old healed-up cuts that block water flow. Stems are again open to take up water.

An evergreen Dianthus in winter.
Evergreen Dianthus in winter functions as ground cover all year.

Perennials

In the garden, perennial dianthus surprises because it looks different from the florist’s carnation.

Small clumps of thin silver green leaves surround thin stems. The stems stand above the leaves holding small flowers.

Petals are open with cut or crinkly edges. Another name for it is “Pink.”

As an evergreen, low-growing mound, silver grey leaves make good ground cover even when the plant is not in bloom.

It flowers in early summer, some with beautiful spicy scents. Good for front of the border. It needs full sun most of the day.

Plant in well drained soil. Too much water may cause crown rot.

Height varies from three inches to one foot. It attracts butterflies and hummingbirds. Deer don’t like them.

Annuals

Compared to the perennial, the annual dianthus likes cooler temps. Partial shade or better, eastern sun will keep it from drying out.

It’s low growing and great at edges of containers or at the front of the garden border.

It’s flowers differ from the florist carnation because the blooms are small.

Some blooms may resemble the bunched petals of carnations. Other cultivars have open single petals instead.

Start from seed or buy as a young plant. Dead head to keep blooms coming all summer.

Carnation, January’s birth flower, celebrates life all year. Whether bought as a bouquet or grown in the smaller perennial or annual versions by gardeners, enjoy them!

References

Flower Meaning

Flower Shop Network

Garden Guides

HGTV

Copyright 2020 Juli Seyfried

Cyclamen: Butterfly Blooms of Winter

Colorful cyclamen brings a little spring inside the winter home. Easy to care for too!

Cyclamen flowers almost look like butterflies.
Cyclamen flowers imitate a butterfly shape.

Cool foggy morning on a San Francisco street in winter some years ago. Heading downhill, feet hitting a dry sidewalk, I see giant cement planters evenly spaced along the curb as I go.

Inside each planter surrounding a pale grey tree trunk, the deep pink flowers of cyclamen stand just above dark green leaves. So captivating!

Pink petals are open like butterflies poised for nectar. Layers of dark green, heart shaped leaves with pale green patterns, cluster in a circle below.

Cyclamen growing outdoors in winter surprises this Midwesterner. Blooms are for indoors. 

Available during the holiday season, blooming cyclamen adds beauty indoors. The freshness of a living flowering plant lasts through weeks and weeks of cold grey days.

Flowers make you happy during winter but also growing in the right spot indoors they look happy!

How do you care for the one you were given or bought during the holidays? Let’s find out.

Cyclamen leaf is heart shaped with light green on top of dark green background.
Heart shaped leaf of the cyclamen with variegation in a lighter shade of green.

Features of Cyclamen persicum

This is the florist version of the hardy cyclamen which grows outdoors.

Native to:  Algeria to eastern Mediterranean.

Name refers to: The round shape ot the tuber. The name is derived from the Greek word for circle.

Zones: 9-11

Leaves:  Rounded, heart-shaped, deep green with pale green variegations.

Blooms: Pink to red to white, lavender to purple. Five petals loosely cluster together.

Height: 6-8 inches

Width: Depends upon the size pot you buy. The number of tubers in each pot varies. They come in pots from very small to large.

Grows from:  Tuber.

Care

  • Hopefully you got a plant that has a lot of buds about to bloom. Flowers last for several months.
  • Sunlight:  Keep it in a sunny but cool location. Heat sources like furnace vents, dryers and ovens create a too-hot environment.
  • Soil:  Average to slightly acidic.
  • Water:  Once a week water from the bottom of the plant. Place the pot in a tray of water.  Check to see that the top of the soil is moist and then remove the pot.

Cyclamen likes moist but not wet soil. Overwatering rots the tubers.

  • Fertilize:  Not necessary for the indoor florist version. 

Problems/Pests

Mites are parasites which are too small to see with the naked eye. They cause damage before you know they are there. The larvae feed on new plant growth.

The growth is stunted. For example, buds may form but wither before having a chance to bloom.

There are a couple of solutions.

You can throw it out so your other plants aren’t infected.

You can use an organic insecticidal spray and follow directions.

Prevent mites from developing by keeping the humidity low. Indoors in winter this should not be a problem as the air is dry.

From underneath, cyclamen flower looks more like a hat.
Cyclamen flower looks like a hat from underside.

Uses

Cyclamen is a seasonal indoor plant.  Most people enjoy the blooms through the winter.  The foliage is pretty even without flowers. Throw it out once it finishes blooming and loses its leaves.

Can‘t I grow it year round?

Sometimes it’s fun to see if you can grow a plant that others say probably won’t grow or rebloom.  Cyclamen is one of those plants.

I tried regrowing the plant once and succeeded. However, it did not produce any blooms.

Maybe you’ll do better than I did. Give it a try!  Here’s some tips:

1. When it stops blooming and the leaves die back, remove the leaves. Reduce watering gradually, then stop watering.

2. Put the pot in a cool spot and let the tubers dry.  You can also take them out of the pot and pack them in dry peat moss.  They are dormant just like summer bulbs that you save over winter.

3. Midsummer, repot in fresh soil and place in a sunny window or in partial shade outside.

4. Water the pot regularly from the bottom to keep the tubers from getting too wet.  

5. When foliage begins to grow place the pot in a cool spot to encourage blooms.

Cyclamen is a beautiful and easy to maintain flowering plant for indoors. It’s hard to say goodbye to the butterfly blooms when the season is over. But by then it’s spring and new flowers outdoors will entrance you!

References

Missouri Botanical Garden

North Carolina State University Extension

USDA Resources Conservation Service

Copyright 2019 Juli Seyfried

Paperwhite Narcissus and December Birthdays

Paperwhite Narcissus grows indoors on stones set in water.
Paperwhite Narcissus displays abundant flowers indoors.
Photo: Pixabay

December birthdays share the month with the anticipation, preparation and celebration of several holidays.  Paperwhite Narcissus is considered the birthday flower for December.

While there are many birthday bouquets to buy at the florist, Narcissus is not available.

If you want a bouquet of December’s birth flower you’ll have to grow your own. There are kits or bags of bulbs to buy although maybe not in time to grow a bouquet for a December birthday.

Holly and Poinsettia are also mentioned as flowers for December birthdays, but Narcissus is listed most often.

The first two are usually related to Christmas traditions which may or may not matter to some.

Birth months throughout history have been celebrated with a special flower to mark the month.  Did the tradition begin with the flower that was in season, the one flower that grew in abundance that month? I’m guessing so.

In different parts of the world, Narcissus grows easily because the climate and soil conditions are just right. In colder areas of the U.S., daffodil, a common name for the narcissus pops out of the ground in spring.

Paperwhite Narcissus or Narcissus tazetta in colder zones, is grown as a forced bulb indoors in November through February or March.

It symbolizes faithfulness.  Maybe it should also symbolize adaptability or being accommodating?

Since December birthdays share the month with many holidays and the birth flower isn’t available, being adaptable goes with having a birthday in December.

Poinsettias are alternative to Narcissus because they are available for sale.
Poinsettias are an alternate flower to give the December birthday person in your life.

About December Birthdays

The closer it is to one of the holidays, the harder it may be for the birthday person to feel special, since most of the month’s focus is on group holidays. One person’s birthday party might seem over the top – too much partying!

Alas! It puts family and friends to the test to prove they care by making sure December birthday-ers feel important.

In my case, my family celebrates Christmas. I know of four people with birthdays in December: my parents, a close friend and me.

Both of my parents have birthdays close to Christmas.

Unfortunately, my Dad is one who felt slighted by having his birthday on the 24th. His memory was of sharing his big day with a brother and sister.

Each of them was allowed to open a Christmas present on his birthday.  I’m guessing it was to keep them happy.  He did not get to open any gifts for himself on their birthdays later in the year.

My family always had a big celebration for him on his day, including his favorite food and drink. Although gone now, I honor his memory with his favorite food, minus the fruitcake with caramel sauce, on Christmas Eve.

Apparently he did like some holiday-specific food for his birthday! And my aunt made a fruitcake and mailed it to him every year in time for his big day.

Mom’s memory of her birthday close to Christmas is one she remembers fondly.  She was told that Santa came early and hung her on the Christmas tree with a big red bow!

Since her day is a few days away from December 25 it’s easier to separate her celebration from that day.  Honoring her birthday is usually lunch or dinner with gifts.

She’s happy that her children remember her day with cards, phone calls and most especially if they can be with her in person.

My best friend from college has a mid-December birthday. Just right! Not too close to either Thanksgiving or Christmas. We send each other humorous or serious cards depending on the mood and/or age that year.

What a relief to share the same number birthday with a friend whose date is ten days after mine!  It’s one of many things we have in common.

My birthday is at the beginning of December, close enough to Thanksgiving that sometimes it was celebrated during that weekend, not the day of.  Family/friends were available then but often not on my exact day.

I imagine there are many who have birthdays they celebrate close to the actual date but not the day of. It’s important to share the event with those who care about us and make us feel special.

For me, Thanksgiving is the beginning of party season and my birthday rolls into a month long celebration ending with New Year’s Eve. It’s a happy time of year for me.

If my gifts were wrapped in holiday paper I don’t remember.  My favorite cake as a child had white coconut frosting and red and white peppermint candy canes on it.

My day is far enough away from Christmas that it feels more like a hint of what’s to come.

Creating traditions using cues from the season at hand makes a birthday unique. Flowers are a part of happiness – making, even if some of us have to grow our birth flower.

How to Grow Narcissus

Features

Native to:  Southern Europe and North Africa

Name refers to:  In Greek mythology, Narcissus falls in love with his reflection in a pool of water. (By contrast, December birthdays don’t have much time for self indulgence – it’s group time!)

Zones:  8-11

Leaves:  Long straps of green stand upright.  

Blooms:  Small, fragrant trumpet shaped flowers.

Height: 8-20 inches depending on the cultivar.

Grows from:   Bulbs.

Grows: Inside as a forced bulb.

Three waterproof pots to grow Paperwhite Narcissus.
Examples of three kinds of waterproof pots for growing Paperwhite Narcissus.

Paperwhite narcissus grows easily indoors in pots filled with stones and water.  Here’s how:

Tools

  • Shallow (3-4 inches high) waterproof pot without drainage holes – like glazed ceramic flower pots, coffee cups, glass bowls.
  • Clean gravel or stones.
  • Water.

Assembly

  • Place 1-2 inches of stones in bottom of pot.
  • Set bulbs on top with flat side resting on stones, top pointy side up.
  • Put some stones around bulbs to keep bulbs in place.
  • Add water just to the bottom of the bulbs.  Caution: don’t let bulbs sit in water as they will rot.
  • Place in a cool sunny window.
  • As green shoots come up rotate the pot slightly every couple of days.  This will keep the shoots growing straight and not bending toward the light.
  • If the leaves and flowers begin to flop over, place a small stake in the center. Tie twine or raffia to the stake. Gather the falling leaves and wrap them in a circle of twine and tie it to the twine itself.

In approximately 2-3 weeks they bloom.  Flowers last about 1-2 weeks.

Some people plant these bulbs in succession to keep the flowers coming. Bulbs planted in succession make the display last throughout winter.

To do this, either divide up the bulbs you bought and save some or buy a couple of packages. Have a few extra waterproof containers ready, as well as clean stones.

Follow the directions above, but plant another pot two weeks after you planted the first set of bulbs. Plant yet another pot two weeks after the second set.

Once bloom time is over plants are finished and unlikely to bloom again. You can throw them out or if organically grown throw them in the compost pile.

Uses

Brighten up any room with a cool, sunny window. Their fragrance makes you think spring is here even when it’s cold, gray and nasty outside with six more weeks of winter to go!

December’s not the only month with a lot to do. Activities and celebrations happen all year long. Remeber a birthday in a special way and time of year doesn’t matter. Just don’t make them grow their own birth flower!

References

Cornell University College of Agriculture and Life Sciences

NC State Extension

SFGate

Maple Trees Offer More Than Shade

Maple trees sweeten our life with shade, fall color, wood products and syrup. See what social events they inspire.

Maple trees line a path in the fall woods
Maple trees lean over the path dropping leaves wherever.

Do you remember your first tree?  It was taller than you – could you see the top?  Were there animals coming and going?

How did the bark feel? Smooth, rough or maybe you didn’t want to touch it because there were insects running over it.

My first tree was the large maple in our small backyard where I lived until I was seven years old.

It was the only large tree in the backyard giving us shade from the western sun in the afternoon. Just behind our fence the woods added to the late day shade.

Some of my first animals used the big maple. My first raccoon climbed to a high branch, settling on it to watch us in safety.

Squirrels chased each other all around the trunk in a spiral, clinging to the nubby sides of it.

Chipmunks scurried for cover underneath the bottom of the trunk– where did they go? I ran around and around looking for them.

And birds! Blue Jays loved to perch and call out. Robins sang sweet tearful tunes, their nests built too high for me to reach. 

Cardinals’ chipped their sound and were easy to spot because of their bright red color.

So much fun to play in too. Dad raked up large yellow leaves that covered the green grass in autumn. He made a giant pile for us.

We loved to jump and scoot and fling them around. Then I guess he had to rake them up again!

Before we moved from the house, I gave that large maple tree a hug . At seven years old, I could not get my arms around the trunk. I hugged as much of that rough textured tree trunk as I could.

Yellow maple leaf in the grass.
Random Maple leaf from another yard.

My Grandmother, Canadian born and raised, later became an American citizen but kept maple leaf symbols around her house – a reminder of her heritage. 

I didn’t know until I was older that the Canadian flag bears an eleven point symbol of a maple leaf between two red bars.

In my yard I could have had my own tree farm or forest by now because of all the little seedlings that pop up from a neighbor’s tree.

They grow where they land – flower beds, the lawn and underneath shrubs. I pull them out.

That old tree has since been taken down. Another maple tree’s seedlings from I don’t know where, still surprise me every summer.

Maple tree seedling.
Maple tree seedling tries to reforest the yard.

Features

Native to:  Eastern and Central North America.

Cultivars have different sizes, leaf color, soil requirements. Talk to an arborist or nursery tree expert about which is best for your yard.

Zones: 3-9

Leaves: Three to five pointed lobes with toothed edges, medium to dark green on top, lighter green to grey green on bottom side.

Blooms:  Flowers in fringy clusters, later becoming fruits with 2 wings – the whirligigs that blow off the tree in early summer.

Height: 30 feet – 130 feet

Width:  30 feet – 50 feet

Grows from:  Seeds

Care

  • Sunlight:  Full sun to part shade.
  • Soil: Average, well-drained but can tolerate clay soil, some cultivars like the soil slightly acid.
  • Water:  Medium to wet.
  • Fertilize: Usually not necessary.

Problems/Pests

The roots spread far and wide in the yard. Roots tend to be the culprits in overtaking and breaking down plumbing pipelines, driveways and sidewalks.

Before planting find out how far the roots’ reach can be. Locate the tree far enough away from hardscape.

Some are not pollution tolerant.

Pests:  Asian long horned beetle weakens the tree, causing branches to break and fall.

Diseases: Anthracnose, leaf scorch, leaf spot, tar spot and fungi like powdery mildew and verticillium wilt.

Uses

In the home garden it’s a shade tree and home for birds and animals. They’re grown in some areas to control erosion or manage surface water like runoff after rain.

Find wood from maple trees in furniture, flooring, plywood, veneer, musical instruments and toys.

The sugar maple produces sugar and syrup.

Maple tree seedling with roots.
Maple tree seedling.

Celebrations of the Maple Tree

Fall foliage trips celebrate the colorful change of many kinds of trees, but you can’t miss the brilliant long-lasting color of the maple trees.

Every year there are predictions for peak foliage times. If you’re planning a trip, the area you want to visit usually has predictions for the best time to visit.

There are drive tours, train trips, fall festivals, hikes and even times and places to watch for migrating birds heading south for the winter.

Maple syrup festivals generally run from February through April. They’re held when sap collection is at its peak.

The sap production depends on the climate of each region. Search online to find the specific dates of festivals.

Sap collected from the trees is turned into maple sugar and maple syrup – a good reason to celebrate!

Activities might include: carrying buckets of tree sap, parades, carnival rides, wagon or train rides, hikes and demonstrations of candy and syrup making.

Learn all about lumberjacking. When tired from watching someone else do all that hard work, eat lots of food that uses maple products like pancakes and sausage covered in syrup! Or how about ice cream with maple syrup drizzled over it?

Canada has many events in honor of the maple tree too.

Four seasons of beauty plus celebrations of their colors and products – how sweet!

References

The Canadian Encyclopedia

Michigan State University

The Tree Center

Copyright Juli Seyfried 2019

Chrysanthemum: Fall Friendship Flower

Hardy mums are easy mainstays in the fall garden. Florist mums brighten the house with long-lasting blooms any time. What’s their special quality beyond beauty?

Red mums with yellow centers.
Hardy Chrysanthemum

November babies, this is your flower. It’s been a sign of friendship since Victorian times.

The chrysanthemum has different symbolic meanings in countries like China, Japan, Australia, Belgium and Austria. For most in the U.S., it’s a beautiful flower that’s in abundance in the fall.

There are two ways to buy them:  hardy mums to grow in the garden or florist mums to dress up your house.

Garden Mum

Features

Native to: Asia and Northeastern Europe.

Name refers to: Greek words for gold and flower.

Zones:  5-9, although some may be grown in Zones 3 and 4 – check the plant’s label.

Leaves:  Small dark green, three lobe leaf. It’s shape reminds you of a little animal’s paw.

Blooms: Many shades from gold to bronze to red, purple, pink, white and off white. One bloom is made of hundreds of smaller petals called florets. 

These florets have many different shapes. The National Chrysanthemum Society has listed 13 classes of bloom forms.

Bloom Time:  Depending on the cultivar, mums bloom early July, early fall in September or late fall in October. Flowering lasts 4-8 weeks.

Height: 1-2 feet sometimes 3 feet depending on the cultivar.

Width:  1-2 feet

Grows from:  Seeds, cuttings and divisions. Many people buy full grown plants in pots.

Seeds:  Planting seeds may not grow true to the color of the parent plant. Follow package directions.

Cuttings:  Taken in spring when pinching to control growth. Root the cuttings and transplant.

Divisions:  After a few years, a woody stem develops in the middle of the plant.

Dig up the whole plant and separate the young, newer plants from the outer edge of the root ball.

Plant in a new spot in the bed for pest control and to prevent disease.

Attracts:  Butterflies.

Care

  • Location: Find a place where it will be protected from the wind. Plant far enough apart from other plants for good air circulation to keep diseases from developing.
  • Sunlight:  Full sun but protected from late afternoon sun.
  • Soil:  High in organic matter that drains well.
  • Water: Frequent watering to keep soil moist but not wet.  Root rot occurs if the soil is too wet.
  • Fertilize: They’re considered heavy feeders. Feed monthly with an organic, water soluble fertilizer spring through July.
  • Pinching: To keep the plant small and bushy, pinch off the branches as they grow.

Pinch between your finger nails above the second set of leaves. This will cause it to branch.

Do this from the time they reach six inches tall until early summer.  Pinching also prevents leggy growth that causes the plant to flop over.

  • Winter Protection:  Sometimes they will survive the winter, sometimes not even if your plant is designated winter hardy for your area.

In late fall, after blooming, cut back to 6 inches.  Mulch with straw or pine straw.

These mulches are loose and open enough to provide protection from the cold, but still allow air to circulate to prevent the roots from getting too wet. 

Problems/Pests

Many pests:  Aphids, spider mites and thrips.

Many diseases:  Powdery mildew, rust, stem and root rot, viruses.

To prevent problems, rotate their spot in the garden when you divide them every few years.

Uses

Perennial or annual containers, edging for borders, grouped together for large displays.

White mums with yellow centers.
Bouquet of florist Chrysanthemum.

Florist Mum

These are the beautiful indoor flowers that are enjoyed for over a month and then thrown out.

Potted version:

Buy one that has more buds than open flowers to enjoy the show longer.

Blooms approximately 6-8 weeks.

Known for its air cleaning qualities.

Care:

  • Can place in a decorative pot that has no drainage holes.  This protects the counter or furniture surface from water damage.

A saucer underneath the potted plant will do the same.

  • Keep in a cool but sunny spot. Cooler temperatures make blooms last.
  • Keep soil evenly moist. Water generally twice a week.

Test top inch of soil with your finger. If dry, thoroughly water it at the sink. Let water drain completely before putting it back in its spot.

  • Throw out when it’s done blooming. Avoid the compost pile because the plant has been treated with chemicals to make it grow to the size and shape that is sold at the store.

Bouquet of Mums:

Last approximately 2 weeks.

Change the water at least once during that time.

Cut the ends of the stems as the original cuts have closed up. This allows fresh water to get to the blooms. Flowers will last longer.

Chrysanthemum’s Other Quality

In addition to cleaning the indoor air, outdoors the mum has another role. The flower of a particular species is turned into a natural insecticide.

An extract from the flower is toxic to most insects. When exposed to this substance it can numb and kill them.

Unfortunately, this substance is toxic to beneficial insects, fish and amphibians too. Although it’s a natural insecticide, use carefully following package directions.

You really want to target the infested plant without spraying other plants. By targeting you reduce harm to beneficial insects and reduce water pollution runoff.  

Whether you buy the chrysanthemum for indoor or outdoor decoration or use an insecticide product made from its flowers, the mum is a mainstay of the fall garden.

References

EXTOXNET Extension Toxicology Network

FTD by Design

National Chrysanthemum Society, USA

Copyright Juli Seyfried 2019

Apples: Versatile Stars

Crabapples on tree branch.
Crabapples
Photo from Pixabay

Apples are so versatile with so many uses people almost overlook them or take them for granted.

They’re nutritious and benefit your health in many ways helping to prevent some diseases.

Although sweet on their own, treats like apple pie add something special to a meal.

You can grow your own and within a few years of planting they’re ready to pick.

But there’s more to apples than eating. This is the second part of two articles about these globes. Experience some of their other star qualities!

Pink crabapple flowers.
Crabapple flowers
Photo from Pixabay

Decorative Crabapple Trees

Besides growing your own tree for fruit there is a decorative version:  the crabapple tree. This four season beauty is worthy of a spot in your yard.

In spring, it’s covered in small fragrant blossoms that capture your nose long before you see the tree.

It’s the kind of scent that makes people forget to watch where they’re walking – running into street signs or falling off curbs.

Summer’s bronzy green leaves cover the tree, hiding the growing clusters of fruit.

Fall leaves turn colors yellow to red. Small apples like ornaments, hang in plain sight all over the tree.

Winter, some apples remain and stand out from the dark bark on the twisting branches.  

Red crabapples frozen in ice on tree branch.
Crabapples in ice.
Photo from Pixabay

Features:

Genus:  Malus

Name refers to:  Tree with small bitter fruit that is edible in jellies.

Zones:  4-8

Leaves:  Small deep green to bronzy color in summer. Varieties have leaves that turn yellow, orange, red or purple in fall.

Blooms:  In April beautiful buds open to flowers of white, various shades of pale to deep pink depending on the variety.

Fruit:  Small yellow, orange red to deep red apples that are too bitter for basic eating.  It makes a good tart jelly.

Trunks:  Pretty, gnarled shape that looks like a statue in winter. Snow on bark is a bonus.

Height: 15-20 feet

Spread:  12-20 feet

Attracts:  Pollinators like bees and butterflies. Birds love the fruit later in the season.

Crabapple trunk, branches. leaves in fall.
Fall Crabapple tree
Photo from Pixabay

Care:

Sunlight:  Full sun

Soil:  Well-drained, tolerates clay soil

Water:  Medium

Fertilize:  Add compost once a year

Problems:

Considered a low maintenance tree if you get a disease and pest resistant variety.

People who cut the grass find fallen apples may damage the mower blades.  Plant in a large bed where fallen fruit can just decompose.

May develop scab, fireblight, rust or powdery mildew.

Insect problems include aphids, borers, Japanese beetles, scale, spider mites and tent caterpillars.

More Star Qualities

Experience versatile apples in events, art, crafts, stories and sayings. You’re surrounded by their sight and tart smell!

Rows of candy and carmel apples.
Carmel and candy apples
Photo from Pixabay

Celebrations of apples:

Festivals: Across the country you can find many apple festivals usually from September to mid October. Think about it now and plan a fall trip for next year.

Each festival is unique reflecting the town or area where it is held. Apples and products made from them are the stars of the festival.

Here are some activities you may find: judging of apples, pies and jellies; arts and crafts with the fruit.

More activities: parades, musical entertainment, how-to demonstrations, games, rides, hayrides and art shows.

Apple-picking at farms who may also host events or sell products made from apples.

Bobbing for apples is a game usually played at Halloween parties. Get a large tub at least 18 inches in diameter, fill with water and throw some fresh ones in. Watch them float on top.

You kneel on the ground with hands behind your back. Try to grab one with your teeth. Not as easy as it looks!

If the tub is big enough two people can bob at the same time. Winner is the one who gets it first. You can also time the contestant to see how long it takes. Shortest time wins.

Or set a timer for a minute and see who can get one in that time. If you get the apple it’s yours.

Crafts

Dolls: Make a doll head out of a dried apple. Make a body, attach the dried apple head and dress it to complete the doll. There are many instructions on line for how to make one.

Half an apple.
Half apple ready for print making.
Photo from Pixabay

Apple Art: Young children may use them as a tool to make sculptures or prints. To make a print use half an apple as a stamp. Cut a whole one in half. Let it dry for a little bit so juice doesn’t interfere with paint.

Put a little acrylic paint on a paper plate. Take one of the dried halves and dip the cut side evenly into the paint. Press onto a piece of paper. What designs can you make?

Painting of wooden bowl of apples.
Current painting of apples in still life.
Image from Pixabay

Art

Apples are the main subject in paintings by famous artists.

Vincent Van Gogh painted Still Life with Apples, Paul Gaugin painted Apples in Bowl, and Paul Cezanne painted The Basket of Apples.

Maybe this fruit was in season and handy to grab, display and paint? These are only three of many works of art with apples as the main subject or as part of a larger scene.

Tree trunk surrounded by fallen green apples.
Fallen apples
Photo from Pixabay

Stories from history

Sir Isaac Newton (1642/43-1727), an English physicist and mathematician had an experience with the humble apple that inspired him to think about gravity.

While drinking tea under apple trees, a ripe one fell from a tree to the ground. Thinking about “why and how” later contributed to the development of the universal law of gravity.

John Chapman aka Johnny Appleseed ( 1774-1845), was a traveling nurseryman who planted nurseries and apple orchards throughout Pennsylvania, Ohio and Indiana.

The fruit from these trees were good only for making hard cider and applejack. Orchards were a legal way to make a land claim.

He’d plant an orchard and create a nursery, then leave to create another somewhere else. He’d return in a few years to sell the first one off.

He dressed simply, often without shoes, wearing a tin hat. He believed in no harm to animals or other living creatures. His life and work made him a folk hero.

A few old sayings starring apples:

One slice of apple pie.
Slice of apple pie
Photo from Pixabay

As American as apple pie.

An apple a day keeps the doctor away.

The apple doesn’t fall too far from the tree.

An apple for the teacher…

“Apple polisher” – name given to a person trying to impress someone.

Apples are wide spread in the world. They’re recognized in all sorts of food products, health benefits, celebrations and artistic uses. They’re everyday stars of life!

References

PickYourOwn.org

Wikiart Visual Art Encyclopedia

web.stanford.edu

Copyright 2019 Juli Seyfried

Apples: Stars of Food and Nutrition

Apples plucked from the orchard display their useful versatility in this two-part series during the “Apple Month” of October.

Three McIntosh Apples stacked.
McIntosh Apples ready to eat!

Apples are for more than snacking. They are the versatile stars of their own dishes like pie and drinks of cider. They are the main feature of holiday games and decorations.

Scientists study their health benefits. Apples offer lifestyle advice through wise old sayings.

Here’s a look at some of their contributions to nutrition and mealtimes.

Health benefits

Studies abound about the beneficial effects on the body from eating apples. Although not a cure-all apples have some preventive qualities.

Because they contain Vitamin C and Beta carotene antioxidants, apples fight toxins in the body. 

Fiber in apples helps tame cholesterol. Fiber cleans the liver and colon by removing toxins. Apple fiber contributes to protection against diseases like diabetes, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s.

Apples are low in calories. Eaten raw they naturally remove some stains from your teeth.

Some common food uses for apples:

Eating apples tops the list. Will you be eating them fresh? Will you cook or bake them? Do you like your apples on the sweet side or do you like a tart flavor?

Some varieties are tried and true for eating fresh as a snack or in a salad like: McIntosh, Red Delicious, Fuji and Gala.

Some are good for both eating fresh or cooking and baking like: Crispin, Braeburn, Jonagold and Granny Smith.

These are just of few of the varieties. There are so many more apples to choose from. Some grow only in your area. Give a different one a try!

Two barrels of apples in an apple orchard.
Two barrels of apples picked from trees in the orchard ready for processing. Photo from Pixabay.
  • Food made from apples:

Applesauce is made by cooking peeled apples and sometimes adding spices. Available in stores, some with no added sugar or you can make your own.

Start with a few fresh apples. Wash and peel. If you leave the peels on they make the sauce chewier but add nutrients.

Cut the apples into slices. Add some water and cook in a saucepan over medium heat until it’s the consistency you like. Sprinkle cinnamon over apples while cooking. Cool before serving.

Dried apples can be made in dehydrators or ovens.

Apple jelly and apple butter spread on toast or muffins are delicious! Buy ready to slather on or find an easy-to-make recipe.

How about apples dipped in melted candy or caramel? The sweet and sticky concoctions get all over your face and hands – but they’re oh so good!

Buy candy apples or caramel apples in stores. Have a sticky good time with easy recipes to make your own.

  • Drink the juice made from apples:

Apple Juice is filtered to remove pulp, etc. and pasteurized to kill bacteria.

Cider is apple juice that hasn’t been filtered or sweetened.  It may be pasteurized.

Hard cider and applejack are fermented versions of apple juice. The amount of alcohol from the fermentation process differs in each product. Hard cider has less alcohol than applejack.

  • All-purpose apple products:

Vinegar is made from fermentation of apple juice. It’s used for many purposes. Food uses include: vinegar as a partner in salad dressing and pickling just about anything.

Clean counter tops with a 50/50 solution of vinegar/water.

Use it full strength in a squirt bottle for killing weeds. A bottle that streams liquid works best to target only weeds.  

Finding and storing apples

Besides your local grocery, farmers’ markets and apple farms are great places to get popular varieties. Some carry local varieties.

Choosing organic apples reduces the amount of pesticides that you consume. They keep best in the refrigerator.

Apple tree with apples on tree and ground.
Apple tree loaded with fruit. Photo from Pixabay.

Interested in growing your own trees?

Apple trees originated in Kazakhstan in central Asia. They are members of the Rosaceae family. They are found in almost every part of the world.

Here are a few tips for growing them in your yard:

You will need to buy two trees so that bees can cross pollinate them to produce fruit.  Make sure the location you want to plant them is the best spot for their needs:  soil, light – at least eight hours/day and water. Keep in mind the size of the full grown tree when choosing a spot!

Your local nursery can help you with the selections hardiest in your zone. They have information on insect and disease resistance. They can also tell you how many years before you see fruit growing on the trees.

Consider the care needed to grow them. They thrive with regular watering and yearly pruning.

A group of green apples with one peeled.
One peeled and ready to cook apple in the group. Photo from Pixabay.

Ready to make some goodies from apples? Here are three recipes to try that are inspired by old apple recipes:

  • Slaw with Apples and Cheese

Grate cabbage. Add chopped or grated apples along with your favorite crumbled or grated cheese. Mix with mayo or mayo substitute. Season to taste with salt and pepper or a non-salt seasoning.

  • Apple Pie

1 single ready-made or made from scratch pie crust

Filling:

1 21oz can apples or 3 C fresh, peeled and cooked apples

1 TBS all-purpose flour

8 TBS sugar or favorite sweetener following the package’s substitution guidelines

1 tsp cinnamon

2 TBS bottled lemon juice

1 – 2 TBS butter, cut into small pieces

Directions:

Preheat oven to 400 degrees.

Place pie crust in pie pan.

In a medium bowl:  mix apples, flour, sugar, ½ tsp cinnamon and lemon juice together. Place on crust in pie pan.  Scatter the pieces of butter over filling.  Sprinkle remaining cinnamon on top.

Place a ring of foil on pie crust edges to prevent overcooking. Bake at 400 degrees for 20 minutes. Remove foil from edges and bake until crust is lightly browned. Take from oven and cool for 15 minutes before cutting and serving.

  • Applesauce Bread With Nuts

2 C all-purpose flour

¾ C sugar or favorite sweetener following the package’s substitution guidelines

3 tsp baking powder

1 tsp salt

1/2 tsp soda

1 tsp cinnamon

¾ C nuts – walnuts or pecans (omit if you want)

1 egg

1 C applesauce (no sugar added type)

2 tsp melted butter or margarine

Directions:

Preheat oven to 350 degrees.

Beat egg. Add applesauce and the butter or margarine. Mix. Add dry ingredients.  Stir by hand or mixer until blended.

Bake 1 hour at 350 degrees. Touch top to see if it springs back easily. If it does, insert a table knife in top. If it comes out clean, it’s done! Let cool before slicing and serving.

In Part 2 we’ll look at other versatile uses for apples and the meanings of some of those old sayings.

References

Organic Lifestyle Magazine

US Apple

University of Minnesota Extension

Copyright Juli Seyfried 2019

Save Water in Your Garden

Save water and money with these tips to reduce the amount of water you use to keep your garden green.

Hose end with water coming out.
Water flows freely from open end of hose.

Watering the garden during this dry early fall is on my mind. My yard is getting little to no rain in this record breaking heat.

This watering task is getting very old. The water bill will be higher than normal this season too.

Most of the yard gets water roughly once a week if there’s no rain in the weather forecast. Sun worshipers like roses and spireas don’t ask for much. Shallow rooted plants like Hosta, and water lovers like hydrangea need water more often.

How to satisfy the needs of garden plants yet not use too much water? Here are some ideas to balance a healthy garden with water conservation.

Some water-saving solutions:

  • Water morning or evening to reduce evaporation. Some of the water coming from your sprinkler or sprinkler system evaporates during the delivery to your garden.

Evening is really the second best time because temperatures usually get cooler at night. Fungal diseases might develop. Slugs like a cool, wet environment and come out to eat your plants.

  • Water less often. Yes! When you water make it a slow and long session.  Water will soak the soil. Roots have time to take up the water.
  • Water soil around the roots. This is where it’s needed because roots take in most of the water used for growth. Don’t worry about leaves.

   Try one of these:

Soaker hose: Drips water on the ground. Place one throughout the garden. Your plants will get a slow steady watering.

Sprinkler: Delivers water to the ground but depends on the aim of the spray nozzles. Look for one that is adjustable. You want to aim the spray nozzles at the base of plants. You don’t want to water the driveway or parts of your house!

  • Plant drought resistant trees, shrubs, lawn and flowers. Look for native plants of your area first.

They’re already adapted to your climate which includes amount of rainfall and soil. They’re also resistant to diseases and insects commonly found in your area.

  • Mulch conserves water by shading the soil. Roughly 1.5 – 2 inches around the plant slows evaporation of water. Keep mulch away from the stem to prevent rot.
  • Allow grass to grow longer.  Cut only one third off the top. Leave the short grass clippings on the ground. This blocks the sun to slow water evaporation much like mulch. Longer grass develops deeper roots which need less water.
  • Plant trees and shrubs. They shade the ground and plants nearby, reducing heat and rate of evaporation of water.
  • Put plants together by their water needs.  The ones that require more water get it more often. The ones that like it drier will save you time and money on the water bill.

As an example, my backyard is a water park. Our house sits slightly downhill from neighboring houses and the backyard gets too much during the late winter snowmelt and spring rain.

Water babies thrive there. Hydrangeas look so lush during spring. So do the spice bush, viburnum trilobum, hosta, fern, dogwood and birch tree.

End of summer hydrangea drooping.
Hydrangea droops from lack of water.

During excessive heat spells of summer, hydrangeas wilt. One hydrangea’s leaves droop like it lost its best friend.

This flowery shrub is the first to let me know that water is needed now. The other plants in the backyard benefit from hydrangea’s distress signal.

The front yard is a lot drier and all the plants that grow there need watering less often. Plants can go a few days longer without water.

Rain gardens are perfect for grouping plants together. In my Zone 6 area, plants used in rain gardens tolerate both extremes of too much water and too little water.

  • Container plants simply need more water:

-Consider limiting the number you have.

-Install drip irrigation in them.

-“Plant” something in the center of your container that slowly leaks water. PVC pipe, a plastic yogurt carton or clay pot will do.

Drill holes in the PVC pipe and plug the bottom. The plastic yogurt carton needs puncture holes everywhere but the bottom. Clay pots leach water through their sides. Plug the hole in the bottom first.

Dig a hole in the flower container and put your leaky watering device in the hole, open side up. For the PVC pipe it’s easier to put it in an empty container and add the soil.

Surround the watering device with plants. Add water to the open end. It will slowly leak the water to the plants. Eventually the plants will grow and conceal it.

Other ways to save water:

  • Rain barrels above ground and cisterns below ground collect rainwater for use on hot days.
  • Water meter attaches to faucets or hoses and tells how much water you’re using.
  • Water gauges tell how much moisture is in the soil so you know if it’s time to water. These can go in the garden soil or a container.
  • Rain gauge is a simple collector of water either from rain or sprinklers to let you know how much fell.

It’s a rougher estimate of how much water your plants got. It doesn’t account for how much actually got into the soil.

  • Fix leaky outside faucets. Drips add up.
  • Fix leaky hoses at the connections with rubber washers, not the hard plastic kind. You need a tight fit to keep water from gushing out at the connection.

Use just a few of these ideas and watering can be less of a chore, less costly and most importantly save water.

Copyright 2019 Juli Seyfried

Thrive Where You Live

September: National Prosper Where You’re Planted Month. Find ways to keep growing!

Black-eyed susans in bloom.
Black-eyed Susan thrives in many locations.

Prosper where you are planted – hopeful thoughts for plants as you place them in the ground. Hopeful and kind thoughts that you thrive in your place as a person too.

What type of “soil” are you planted in? How do you nurture it? Like a plant you need some attention to thrive. You’re happiest and most successful in ideal conditions.

Tending your personal garden is a lifelong process. Over time as the “soil” gets richer, you get hardier. Here are some questions and ideas to help you grow your ideal personal garden.

Features

Native to:   Where are you originally from? Are you native to the area where you now live or are you a transplant?  What impact do your beginnings have on you?

You have ancestors who had special talents and faced adversity. Nice to think that you’re a hybrid of all who came before you; all the possibilities for your life now that come from your heritage.

Name refers to:   Look up your name to see what it means.  Maybe you are named for a family member or family friend. Can you draw strength and inspiration from the origins of your name?

Zones:   Maybe the zone where you live has seasonal changes and all the adaptations that come with that. The weather is hot, cold, humid, dry, rainy and snowy.

Adapting to seasonal changes is a way of life. Hot days mean light clothing, icy drinks and air conditioning. Shade outside is welcome.

Winter means heavy layers of clothes, hot drinks, fireplaces and any spot outside that gets some warming sun is wonderful. In between seasons of spring and fall have you guessing what to wear every day. Plans? What’s the weather dictating?

Maybe your zone weather is predictably the same every day. Clothing and plans go forward without changes caused by weather.

What zone do you live in? You might be living where the climate suits your physical needs. Physical comfort is important.  Are you living where it’s tough to thrive? Does it require extra attention to make it work?

Can you adapt to your surroundings? Even if the environment is tough, can you find beauty in most days? If not, maybe a new environment, becoming a transplant will help you thrive.

Leaves:   As you branch and grow you sprout new leaves – things you learn about your family, friends, yourself. Leaves begin new and green or carry beautiful colors and last a while.

Some leaves change color showing a new side to themselves. Some wither and die to be renewed the next year. You’re always growing new leaves.

Blooms:   Some moments in life like flowers are very special. They bud, then open into wonderful experiences.  Moments may last only a day like the daylily or weeks like Black-eyed Susan or months like knockout roses or years like shrubs and trees.

All fade after a while, but the picture in your mind stays as fresh as when they first bloomed. Dried flowers and photos are mementos.

Height:  How tall are you? Are you tall, medium or small? What is your view of the garden like? What is it like for others in your circle? You keep growing even after you reach full height.

Width:  Sensitive area here.  Weight fluctuates over a lifetime. Skinny when young, now gaining more weight with age? Maybe always carrying more weight than others?

As a personality, how much space do you take up? Are your flowers bounteous or do you have a quiet, special bloom? Room in the garden for all.

Grows from:  Seeds-just beginning; roots-starting to spread out; bulbs and tubers-storing up. Maybe all are part of your garden design.

As an example, design a vision of what your life will look like in the future after seeds grow roots and shoots. Plant seeds now for the life you want to live.  

Care

Always a balancing act, caring for yourself is continuous.

  • Sunlight:  Are you planted in full sun or full shade? Maybe a mixture of both. Do you seek different light just for a change? Travel, even an hour away can change your view of the world.
  • Soil:  Is your soil nurturing your roots? Do you add amendments to it to promote good growth? Learning is for life. It nurtures your roots. It adds interest and excitement. It never gets old, even if it sometimes hurts.

Did your roots begin in rocky soil? Never too late to improve the soil you grow in.

  • Water:  Too much water – drowning? Learn to swim or divert it. Not enough water – wilting? Bring some into your life. Glide on top of it, dive deep into it or get a little spray now and then.
  • Fertilize:  Feeding your roots good nutrition for best growth? Getting enough exercise?  Add some play time to the mix.

Problems/Pests

Life like gardens can get messy. Everyone has both problems to solve and pests who won’t go away no matter what you do. Weed out negative people or situations as you can. Find healthy alternatives. Find a positive way to grow in spite of problems and pests.

Mulch or ground cover works well to keep “weeds” down. Surround yourself in the form of good friends, family members, inspirational readings and quotes, favorite music, hobbies…

Laughter relieves tension, restores a feeling of good will. Tears do too. They can make problems seem smaller.

Uses

Are you useful where you’re planted? Are you using your gifts or talents to the best of your ability? Satisfaction in giving your best self and giving back to others makes you glow. Find new ways to grow!

Copyright 2019 Juli Seyfried

Hardy Begonia Adds Late Summer Blooms to the Garden

A perennial form of Begonia grows well with regular watering in the hot summer and displays beautiful late season flowers.

Hardy Begonia flowers at end of summer.
Hardy Begonia displays flowers at summer’s end.

One edge of my patio is an island of shrubs and plants to screen out the neighbors. Don’t get me wrong, our neighbors are very nice people.

We help each other whenever we’re in need. It’s the kind of connection that makes me feel the world is all right.

Properties are small in our area. It’s nice to have a sense of privacy even though the sound of our voices can be heard through the layers that separate us.

There are two layers. One is a six foot high wood fence that divides our property from two different yards on the south side. This is the hardscape or backdrop for shrubs.

In the second layer, two purple leaf sand cherries anchor the ends of the garden island. Growing below them are assorted shade loving plants.

Bordering the side closest to the patio: hardy Azalea, Japanese painted fern, Heucheras, Foam plant, and Solomon’s seal.

The island entices us to come out from our back door view for a closer look. Sitting in chairs next to all that greenery makes us feel like we’re in the woods.

The newest addition to the island border is a perennial or hardy Begonia. It’s almost right in the middle of the lineup.

Nothing else I have tried in that spot has survived. Perhaps the spot has poor soil or is too sunny, too dry.

Maybe the dog has cut through plants in this area one too many times. He’s made his own easy access to the patio from that side of the yard.

I guess I could have placed a statue or some large rocks in that space. They don’t need any nurturing, don’t care if the dog brushes by!

I really like to see plants growing: leaves blowing in the wind, flowers open to catch the little bit of sun allowed by the shrubs. Planting Begonia grandis is another attempt to complete the island border.

Results are good so far. A lucky find from a garden store, hardy Begonia was planted in midsummer. It was a find because it’s not sold in too many garden centers or nurseries here.

Compost added to the soil, mulch on top and frequent watering helped this plant withstand several sessions of extreme heat already.

Right now it is flowering profusely, the only plant to do so. Gorgeous pink disks like dangling earrings hang over hardy Begonia’s large green leaves.

The disks open to pretty pink flowers with yellow centers. One flower has four petals: two large on top and bottom, two small on either side of the center like little wings.

Since the rest of the border plants bloom earlier in the season, hardy Begonia’s flowers bring new life to this space. Its show enhances the various leaf shapes and colors of the other plants.

I encourage growth of this plant in hopes of seeing new ones sprout nearby from the little bulbs it produces.

Features

Native to: Tropical Regions of the world:  Africa, Central and South America, Southeast Asia.

Name refers to: Begonia grandis is commonly called hardy Begonia or perennial Begonia. A French botanist, Charles Plumier named the genus to honor Michael Begon, a French public official.

Zones: 6-9          

Leaves:  Off-center heart shape, medium green on top side, pale green with red veins on bottom side.

Blooms: Late summer to early fall. Flowers are pink with yellow centers, hanging in clusters.

Tiny bulbs called bulbils, form from the flowers. The bulbils drop in late fall to root and produce new plants next year.

Height:  1.5 feet – 2 feet

Width:  1.5 feet – 2 feet

Grows from: Tubers that develop roots. Also produces bulbils which generate new plants.

One of the last plants to come up in the spring. Mark the spot in case you forget what is growing just beneath the surface of the soil.

Care

  • Sunlight: Part Shade to Full Shade.
  • Soil: Well drained containing lots of organic material. Compost supplies this material.
  • Water: Regular watering especially during drier times in summer.
  • Fertilize: Add compost yearly.
  • Surviving winter:  Mulch heavily in Zone 6 to protect the tuber from freezing and dying.

Problems/Pests

No serious problems beyond getting too dry in summer or freezing in Zone 6 winters.

Uses

Great in shade gardens and shady borders.  One gardener I met said they grow well without any attention in heavy shade close to her house.  Naturalize these in wooded areas of your yard.

References

Missouri Botanical Garden

Southern Living Magazine

University of Maryland Extension

Copyright Juli Seyfried 2019