Three Silver Perennials and One Annual Light Up the Garden

Up close look at tiney lavendar flowers of Lamb's Ears.
Fuzzy leaves, soft to the touch and tiny flowers of Lamb’s Ear.

What’s not to like about a silver plant? Its pale grey sheen catches your eye. Blurred by the brilliance you don’t really see the plant’s details. Magically the silvery sheen moves your eyes to nearby plants.

See how the silver emphasizes pale colored flowers? See how it tempers the brightly colored ones? A silver plant harmonizes well with its neighbors.

On its own a silver plant is striking: a vivid glow by day, a soft gleam by night.

Sun turns on the silver color. Under grey skies it stands out providing relief from the dullness of the day.

In the light of the moon or in the floodlight of a street lamp it glows. While other plants fade into the darkness, a silver plant beams in the light that shines from a window or open door.

Many are drought tolerant due to their light reflective properties. A silver leaf or stem may have a waxy coating or tiny hairs that sends the sun’s light away from the plant.

Reflecting light away helps slow water evaporation from the plant. It survives the heat because it holds onto water longer.

There are many silver plants to suggest. Here are four of my favorites: perennials Artemisia schmidtiana, Lamb’s Ear, Russian sage and the annual, Dusty Miller.

What they have in common is silvery stems. Three also have silvery leaves. They’re known more for their foliage than blooms. They are drought tolerant and easy to grow.

The Three Perennials:

Artemisia "Silver Mound" shows its featery leaves.
Artemisia “Silver Mound” is a plant of close-growing feathery leaves.

Artemisia schmidtiana


Native to: Japan

Name refers to:  A queen named for the Greek goddess Artemis.

Zones:  4-8

Leaves:  Grey green, soft, small and ferny growing close together to form the plant. Its scent reminds me of licorice.

Blooms:  Very small yellow flowers.

Height:  12”

Width:  18″

Grows from:  Seeds, division of plant or cuttings.


  • Sunlight:  Full sun.
  • Soil:  Well drained, average.
  • Water:  Average weekly watering.
  • Fertilize:  No need.


Overwatering causes plant rot.


Low borders. Good in front of plants to showcase their color or disguise their legginess.

Leaves and emerging flower stalk of Lamb's ear.
Blanket-soft fuzzy leaves and emerging flower stalk of Lamb’s Ear.

Lamb’s Ear or Stachys byzantina


Native to:  Southwest Asia.

Name refers to:  They look similar to and feel like the ears of a lamb.

Zones:  4-8

Leaves:  Grey silver or blue green, soft to the touch, 6” long. Forms a mat of soft stems and leaves.

Blooms:  Tall torches with tiny pink-purple flowers. They resemble a rangy candelabra. Often removed because they take away from the look of the low growing silvery leaves.

Height:  6-12″

Width:  1 foot to 4 feet wide.

Grows from:  Seeds, and division.

Attracts pollinators especially bees.


  • Sunlight:  Full sun.
  • Soil:  Average, well drained.
  • Water:  Average. Overwatering causes stem and leaf rot.
  • Fertilize:  No need.


Low maintenance plant that quickly forms a mat wherever you need to cover ground. Cut back to keep in bounds. In late winter/early spring clean up the area by pulling up dead leaves allowing new ones to grow.


Ground cover, borders. Cut flowers can be used immediately in vases or dried for fall bouquets.

Pale purple flowers climb stem of Russian sage.
Russian sage leaves look pale green. Its stems are silver.

Russian Sage or Perovska atriplicifolia


Native to: Himalayas.

Name refers to:  Botanical name honors a Russian general.

Zones:  4-9

Leaves:  Pale green, stems are silver. Leaves have a scent when you brush by them or crush them.

Blooms:  Very small lavender flowers climbing up the stem summer to fall.

Height:  3-4 feet.

Width:  2-3 feet.

Grows from:  Seeds, division and stem cuttings.


  • Sunlight:  Full sun.
  • Soil:  Average.
  • Water:  Average.
  • Fertilize: No need.
  • Cut back to 6” in late winter/early spring to keep from growing too tall. If a single plant flops over support it with a plant ring. Planting several close to each other gives support and makes a strong display.


Low maintenance plant. Deer and rabbit tolerant.


Mid to back of flower bed because of height and spread. Against the background of evergreen shrubs in winter, its silver stems stand out.

The Annual

Yellow flowers of annual Dusty Miller.
Dusty Miller sometimes produces yellow daisy-like flowers.

Dusty Miller or Jacobea maritima

The name Dusty Miller is given to many plants with similar characteristics. Here Jacobea maritima is the focus.


Native to:  Mediterranean region.

Name refers to:  The botanical name has apparently changed a few times so it’s unclear what the exact name and origin is.

Zones:  7-10

Leaves:  Silver, hairy lobed or lacy, up to 2” long.

Blooms:  Yellow, small daisy-like flowers in clusters. Many varieties don’t show flowers during the growing season.

Height:  12-18”

Width:  Up to one foot.

Grows from:  Seeds or cuttings.


  • Sunlight:  Full sun.
  • Soil:  Average, well drained.
  • Water:  Average. Water when dry.  Too much water causes roots and stem to rot.
  • Fertilize:  No need.

If blooms appear you can cut them off. If plant gets leggy trim it back.


Low maintenance plant as long as you don’t overwater. Deer resistant.


Sunny borders, containers. Add a silver accent to flower arrangements by using cuttings.

Perennials Artemisia, Lamb’s ear and Russian sage and the annual Dusty Miller are silver standards in the garden. They are the graceful companions who show off the best in other flowers and plants. Stand out moments belong to them too.

When other plants wilt in the heat, find them thriving. And how they glow in the dark! Add these undemanding and beautiful silver plants to any garden.


Better Homes and Gardens

University of Florida’s Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences

Utah State University Extension

Copyright 2020 Juli Seyfried

Begonias: You Have to Grow More Than One Kind

Such a wide variety of plants and many that are easy to grow, you’ll keep a few around all year.

Open pink flower with yellow center of wax begonia.
Wax begonia’s pink flowers open to reveal yellow stamens in center. Closed discs of new flowers in middle of photo.

I’m on event time, which for me means explore, learn, have fun and don’t worry about physical comfort until the body says “running out of energy.” Then it’s time for a break while I consider what’s left to discover or do.

After a city bus ride to The Hall of Flowers in San Francisco, this Midwest girl is looking forward to see what the S.F. County Fair and Flower Show looks like compared to county fairs of my childhood.

I’m expecting a hot day because of the sun. And that’s where the similarity to a Midwestern fair ends. No dust, straw, smell of animal fur and manure. No carnival rides, scent of fried funnel cakes or burgers and onions or hot dogs smoking on grills.

Instead, I smell earthy scents of potted plants. Maybe a little whiff of fish or animal fertilizer? No matter.

Profuse flowers catch my eye with their colors of white, pink, purple, red and orange. Clusters of tiny petals and closed discs not ready to bloom compete with showier rosettes and open trumpet flowers.

Leaves that look like small fans complement blooms. Other leaf shapes stand out like angel wings or half an angel wing whorled with color.

Two leaves form angel wings on begonia of the same name.
Two leaves form angel wings on begonia of the same name.

Even leaf colors grab attention: some spotted, some splashed and some look painted on. The plain green ones highlight the blooms.

What are these flowering plants? Begonias – an abundance of all kinds. I‘m immersed in their beauty, dropping old ideas of county fairs. I’m enchanted by this one.

Contrasting dark green veins on cream colored background.
Dark green veins on silver grey background of gryphon leaf begonia.

A begonia flower event – plants in pots on the ground, plants standing on tables where I can touch the leaves, plants hanging every place there is to hang one. Individuals, informal clusters and formal groupings.

I love begonias. My mother had one that grew in a tall wooden pot held together by brass metal rings. The plant was a small open bush of long woody stems arching over from the weight of the pairs of angel wing leaves at their ends.

Growing in the low light of the dining room it flowered sparsely in spring and summer. It seemed more of a sculpture the rest of the time. She had it for years, giving it minimal but consistent attention.

Her mother loved begonias too. Discovering this connection to my grandmother who died before I was born makes me wonder – is begonia love in the DNA and passed along from mother to daughter to granddaughter?

A simple begonia connection to my mother and grandmother is now a full blown passion. Especially since I stumbled on this flower show.  

So, in event time, I take in as much begonia lore, and seemingly infinite varieties as I can. Food and rest can wait. How to care for begonias, ideas for how to display them in earthbound pots or airborne planters are important things to know right now.

I take my time, wander where my eyes and ears and nose take me. I find new ones to grow, make a list of some-day plants, try to decide how many I can buy now and take home on the bus.

Because there’s so many varieties, my focus in this article is the wax begonia.  It’s very common and easy to find at many stores during spring and early summer. It’s also easy to grow.

This is one I remove from the pot at the end of the outdoor growing season and save in a window during winter to repot and grow again next spring.

White flower with seed pod just below of begonia.
White flower of wax begonia just above its seed pod. Hanging in a basket outside it has been pollinated.


Native to:  According to the American Begonia Society many species come from all over the world minus Europe and Australia. Some sites list 1500 species known.

Name refers to: Michael Begon, a French public official. In the late 1600s he sent another Frenchman, botanist Father Charles Plumier to study plants in the French colonies in the West Indies. Father Plumier named the genus to honor Michael Begon.

Zones:  10-11. These are grown as annuals and indoor plants.

Leaves:  Waxy glaze which gives them a little bit of a shine.

Blooms: Single or double flowers in clusters in colors of white, pink, red and bicolor. It blooms May to October outdoors. As an indoor plant it blooms all year depending on how much light it gets. Indoor blooms don’t cover the plant as fully as when grown outdoors.

Height:  Some grow 6-8 inches, others 10-12 inches. Check the label.

Width: 6-12 inches.

Grows from:  Seed or cuttings.


  • Sunlight: Full to part shade. 
  • Soil: Average.
  • Water:  Medium. Water well, then let dry out a bit before the next watering. Too much water causes it to rot. If the leaves are looking like shiny plastic, it’s a little past time to water well.
  • Fertilize: Once a month during growing season or use slow release type when first planting.


Too much water and poor air circulation make it susceptible to powdery mildew, stem rot and botrytis.

Insects such as mealy bugs, spider mites and scale can infect plants under poor conditions.

White begonia flowers hanging in a cluster.
Cluster of white flowers from a fuzzy leaf variety of begonia.


Outdoors: Beds, borders, containers.

Indoors: Specimen plants in separate pots or planted in groups in a trough in a sunny window.

Wax begonias are so uncomplicated to grow that they’re a good plant to start with. Many other begonia varieties aren’t too difficult to grow either. It’s easy to become a fan and keep some indoors for year round enjoyment!


The American Begonia Society

Copyright 2020 Juli Seyfried

Blue False Indigo: A True Beauty in Your Garden

Add some low maintenance perennials to your garden like Blue false indigo. Native to many areas of the U.S. it almost takes care of itself!

Blue false indigo flowers opening.
Blue false indigo opens its petals for pollinators.

In my side garden, two globe shaped masses of pretty blue green leaves catch my eye. Emerging from the top of each leafy globe, pale purple flowers climb thin green spears.

Two Blue false indigo plants, side by side in the middle of the garden bed, show off their blooms at almost the same time.

They are so striking between the maroon leaves of Diablo ninebark planted on either side. Stella D’Oro daylilies sit in front, sort of like a family portrait.

This picture is set against the green backdrop of Privet hedge in the garden bed seen by neighbors driving by. I hope the scene gives them a little joy.

Blue false indigo or Baptisia australis returns from the ground every spring as my side garden bed progresses from barren decomposing plant material to tulips and daffodils to leafy flowery globes like Blue false indigo.

The perennial belongs to a family of legumes like peas, soybeans, fava beans and peanuts. Plants like alfalfa, vetch and clover are legumes too.


Native to: Eastern United States west to Nebraska and in Texas.

Name refers to:  False indigo is a U.S. native plant that looks similar to one cultivated by early settlers to dye cloth blue.  That plant, called Indigofera tentoria L. was grown in many parts of the world and is now considered invasive in many places.

The flowers of that plant are pink to lavender in color. The oval leaves grow opposite each other on the stem.  It’s the leaves that are processed to create the blue dye.

Blue false indigo may not work well for dye but it has other qualities. It’s a pretty native perennial. It fixes nitrogen in the soil for its own use.

Being a native plant adapted to the climate and soil, and providing its own food makes it easy to grow.

Unfortunately it is also considered threatened or endangered in several states, due to changes in its habitat.

Zones:  3-9

Trifoliate leaves of Blue false indigo.
Trifoliate leaves of Blue false indigo.

Leaves:  Blue green trifoliate, that is, one leaf is made up of three smaller leaflets. They turn silver grey in the fall.

Blooms:  May to June.  Depending on location, some species begin to bloom as early as April and as late as July. Besides blue purple, flowers come in white, yellow and red purple.

Four colorful petals fold over to form a ball. They open to reveal two more petals pressed together covering the stamen.

Pods form after flowers bloom.
Seed pods (left) form after pollinated flowers bloom.

If pollinated, a tiny seed pod much like a pea pod forms and grows to approximately 2.5 inches long. Inside the pods are kidney bean shaped seeds. After seed pods dry they rattle when shaken.

Height:  2.5 – 4 feet

Width:  3 – 4 feet

Grows from:  Seeds and rhizomes.  Make sure you choose the best location before you plant it because it does not like to be moved.

Of two plants that I relocated, one lived, the other died.  They have extensive rhizomes that grow deep as well as wide. It took a long time digging to find the end of the root system.

Allowing the seeds to fall to the ground once dried, will produce new plants the next year, sometimes in spots you don’t want them!

Spears of flowers on Blue false indigo.
Spears of blue purple flowers emerge from plant.


  • Sunlight:  Full to part shade.
  • Soil:  Does best in average soil that is well drained. Tolerates poor, dry soil like clay or rocky types because it fixes nitrogen in its roots to supply itself with this nutrient.

Fixing nitrogen means that legumes like Blue false indigo get a little help from bacteria living in small nodules on the plants’ roots.

The bacteria take in nitrogen gas from the air and convert it to a form of nitrogen that the plant can use. In exchange, the bacteria gets sugar the plant created.

  • Water:  Average.
  • Fertilize: No need to fertilize.
  • Maintenance:  In fall when the leaves turn silver gray, the plant breaks off from the roots and falls over on the ground.

That’s a good time to get out the hedge shears and cut the dried branches into pieces to leave in the garden bed as a lightweight mulch. If left whole, the dried plant gets carried around the garden by the wind.


No serious problems. This is a beautiful, low maintenance plant.

Bumble bee pollinates Blue false indigo.
Bumble bees like the nectar.


Makes a low growing border in summer. Blue false indigo can be naturalized in native gardens. Just let the seed pods fall wherever and watch all the new plants come up the next year!

Attracts native bees and butterflies.  Deer don’t like it.

Enhance flower arrangements with seed pods still attached to their stems. Add them green in summer or let them dry on the plant and cut for fall designs.

As a native plant, Blue false indigo is easy to grow because it thrives in the climate and soil conditions of its home. A real plus for a beautiful plant in the garden.


Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center

Missouri Botanical Garden

Mt. Cuba Center

USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service

Copyright Juli Seyfried 2020

Grandma’s Lily

Clivia miniata thrives as a houseplant, even though it’s an outdoor lily in warmer climates. It’s easy to grow, has spectacular blooms in late winter and stays a glossy dark green the rest of the year.

Cluster of three orange lilies with one bud.
Clivia miniata bears flowers in clusters.

The flowers I sent to his funeral included the orange daylilies I asked for.  He was my husband’s friend, the first one I met. He became my friend too.

We couldn’t make it to the service several states away. Child in school, jobs and limited finances made it impossible.

I was hoping to send an earthly message to him that we knew him and always would know him. And I wanted some orange daylilies similar to the flowers on the indoor plants that he’d given us when he moved back home to his family, his town.

‘Grandma’s Lily’ he called it. That was his nickname for the division of a plant his grandmother had given him.

He remembered that I loved it the first time I saw it hanging in a west facing window of his house. Suspended from a simple knotted hanger in a clay pot, its slightly glossy, thick green strappy leaves formed layers to the right and left of center like well-behaved hair parted in the middle, falling to either side.

No flowers at the time, just a healthy green plant. Orange trumpet shaped blooms popped out a few months later, several together on a sturdy stem above the leaves. This calm plant didn’t prepare us for the spectacular show of flowers!

We were happy he gave us two plants as a parting gift when he moved.

Funny how something passed from one person to another can mean so much especially when it becomes a connection to someone no longer alive. Always a remembrance of our friendship, they flower every year at the end of a dreary winter.

They’re even more special now – a bittersweet reminder of the time we learned that our friend died in a car accident only a few weeks after the most prolific blooms we’d ever seen on our plants. The flowers were a happy burst of life – “remember me!” – before the shocking farewell to our friend.

Glossy strap-like leaves cascade over each other.
Glossy strap-like leaves curve over each other.


Clivia miniata is considered a slow growing plant and takes several years to become mature in size. It blooms once it’s mature.

Native to: South Africa

Name refers to: Its common name as a lily – Natal lily, bush lily or fire lily doesn’t mean it is in the Lily family. It’s in the Amaryllis family.

Zones: 9-11

Leaves: Dark green straps curve over one another; approximately 2″ wide and 18″ long.

Blooms: Cluster of trumpet shaped flowers. The most common color is intense orange with a yellow center. There are also plants with blooms from white to peach to red.

Height: 1.5 – 2 feet

Width: 2 – 3 feet

Grows from: Rhizomes – those thick stems that grow horizontally underground.

They store plant nutrients and produce new plants. Stems of a new plant grow out of the ground from the rhizomes’ nodes as do new roots.

Three lily buds.
Buds at the ends of flower stems.



  • Sunlight: Bright but avoid direct sun as it may scorch the leaves.
  • Soil: Average potting soil.
  • Water: Test the soil to see if it needs water. Overwatering causes the rhizomes to rot.
  • Fertilize: Feed once or twice in spring with standard fertilizer.
Many lily plants crowded in one pot.
Many lily plants crowded in one pot increases the blooms.
  • Other: Blooms indoors in late winter by keeping it on the dry side through most of the cold season. Definitely water when buds on stems appear. Since older plants bloom be patient with younger, smaller plants.

This plant likes to be crowded in a pot which also increases blooming. Repot only every 3-4 years. Divide for new plants by removing the young plants from the parent plant.


Can summer outside in the colder zones by placing in part or dappled shade. Water well.


A warning that all parts of the plant are toxic to people and animals.

Cats that like to chew on strap-like or blade leaf plants should be kept away. You can give cats their own pots of grassy plants to chew through kits available at stores.

Pests include mites and scales.

Seed heads of lilies after flowering.
Seed heads follow the dried out blooms.


Decorative even without the blooms because of the sturdy, glossy leaves. Flowers can be cut for an arrangement in a vase. Blooms last longer if left on the plant.

We have photos, memories and a large colorful glazed pot he had his brother make for our wedding present. But as a lasting reminder of our friendship it’s nice to have a living gift that flowers every year, popping into our life at the end of a dreary winter – the blooms say he’s still with us.


Guide to Houseplants

House Plants Expert

Missouri Botanical Gardens

Copyright Juli Seyfried 2020

Four Ways to Use Grape Ivy Indoors and Out

Grape Ivy is easy to grow and use in your décor. See how many ways you can design with it!

Grape ivy spills over the edge.
Grape ivy spills over the shelf edge. Can you find the basket that holds it?

In a restaurant Grape ivy hangs like a leafy green waterfall that never touches the ground. A plant hanger firmly attached to the ceiling disappears into the graceful but exuberant leaves to keep a little order to this cascade.

Similar hanging plants add calm to the restaurant‘s atmosphere. It’s a place for peace and quiet and good friends and family and good food.

I know I want to sit near this silent but rambunctious looking plant cascade.

A forest experience at dinner. Why not have this at home? Maybe I could grow one there.

Grape ivy or Cissus alata is a tropical plant adapted for indoor use. Keep it inside all year or bring it outside during summer in a hanging pot.

Train it to climb a trellis placed inside a standing pot on your porch. There are other ways to use it too!


Native to:  Tropical Americas

Name refers to:  The Old English word for ivy is ifig.

Zones:  10-12

Leaves:  One stem produces a dark green, three lobed leaf which has deep ragged cuts on its edges.

Blooms:  Rare for indoor plants – a tiny cluster of pale green flowers with four petals may later produce dark purple to black berries.

Grape ivy tendrils grasp leaves of another plant.
Grape ivy tendrils grasp leaf stems of another plant.

Tendrils:  The tendrils curl and grasp whatever is at hand to support the vine.

Keep an eye on the small hair – like tendrils.  Like tiny fingers they wrap around and hold tight. 

They’ll grasp at anything nearby including lamps, other plants and window blinds!

Height:  6-10 feet

Width:  3-6 feet

Grows from:  Make new plants by rooting the stem cuttings.

Indoor Care

  • Sunlight:  Bright, indirect sunshine.
  • Soil:  Standard potting mix.
  • Water:  Thoroughly water then let the soil dry.  Too much or too little water causes leaves to get dry and crunchy.

Test for dryness of the soil in the pot once a week.   

  • Fertilize:  In spring and summer use standard organic fertilizer following package instructions.


White fly, mealybug, spider mites – keeping a regular routine of watering and fertilizing and pinching back should prevent problems.

Grape ivy hangs over a shelf.
Grape ivy’s dark green leaves mix it up with paler green leaves for a bicolor effect.


As an easy to grow indoor plant grape ivy has many uses.  Here are some ideas to try:


Let the new growth hang below the pot making sure it doesn’t wander into and grab onto your other plants or special décor.

Wind new growth up a plant hanger then let it trail down from the top. Makes a good hanging screen for porches too.


Place your grape ivy on an old piece of furniture and watch it spread out.  Let it hang over the ledge of a bookcase, cupboard or open shelf.

The tendrils may damage the finish which is why an old piece that you don’t care about is recommended.

Grape ivy tendrils curl on its own stem.
Grape ivy tendrils curl on its own stem.


Anything that works as a trellis – a room dividing screen, a pole or a small outdoor trellis brought inside works.

Anchor the pole or trellis at the base, inside of a large pot.

You can gently tie the vines onto the frame you choose with florist tape, pipe cleaners or strips of old rags.

The tendrils will grasp onto the frame and you can remove the ties or leave on for extra support. Eventually the plant forms a screen.

Train it on a topiary form using the same method as above, creating an eye catching piece.

Short and Bushy

If you don’t want trailing or climbing stems, keep the vines short. You’ll have a more compact and lush looking plant this way.

Root the cuttings in water to make new plants to keep or share.

Hanging, trailing, climbing or short and bushy this plant gives you options for your designs. Since it’s easy to grow, Grape ivy keeps the fun in your decorative plans.


Gardening Know How

Missouri Botanical Garden

North Carolina State Extension

Copyright Juli Seyfried 2020

3 Ways to Enjoy a Carnation Flower

Carnation and carnation bud side by side.
Carnation bud and flower – one to enjoy now, one for later.

January birthdays have a wonderful flower – the carnation!

It’s available year round from floral shops for any special occasion, but those born in January get to claim it as their own special flower.

For all of us the carnation brightens the house during cold months, adorns boutonnieres or corsages for weddings and is a floral symbol adopted by states and countries.

Economical too, a bouquet of carnations lasts in the house for almost two weeks. Then it’s time to buy another bunch of the spicy scented blooms.

The carnation is one of over 300 species of the genus Dianthus. Dianthus is native to Eurasia but has been cultivated for approximately 2000 years.

Gardeners grow the small-flowered ones in their gardens. Dianthus whether perennial or annual comes in a variety of colors. There are bicolor flowers too.

Perennial dianthus thrives in a sunny garden. A few have a sweet smell.

Annual dianthus grows best in part shade of flower beds or containers. Some also have a scent.

Other Facts

Dianthus caryophyllus, the carnation, has been part of the floral scene since Greek and Roman times. There are several stories about how it got its name.

The carnation is symbolic of many world traditions and events. Here are some:

  • January birth flower
  • Mother’s Day in the U.S.
  • State flower of Ohio
  • Parents’ day in Korea
  • Weddings
  • Labor movements
  • National flower of Spain, Monaco and Slovenia
  • St. Patrick’s Day
  • Given to commemorate the first anniversary of a marriage

There are at least three ways to enjoy a carnation. Since the flower you buy at the florist or in the floral section of department stores is available all year, let’s begin with the florist carnation.

One open and one almost open carnation flower.
Choose a carnation bouquet with some flowers in full bloom, some almost in bloom and the joy will last longer.

Florist Carnation

This wonderful flower has long strong stems, grey green leaves and crinkly flower petals bunched together almost like a tissue paper flower. Put it close to your nose and catch its spicy scent.

Colors range from white, pink, red, purple, yellow to green. If you want a different color for an event the carnation is easily dyed by florists.  

In the Victorian years (Queen Victoria’s reign in British history from June 20, 1837 – January 22, 1901), flower colors became popular as a way to send a message from one person to another.

The kind of flower sent was also important. Carnation as a flower is said to represent fascination or love or distinction.

While sources agree on some meanings, not all are the same. Here are a few compiled meanings for the colors of carnations:

  • White: purity, pure love, luck
  • Light red: admiration
  • Dark red: love, affection, flashy
  • Pink: mother’s love, gratitude
  • Yellow: cheerful, disappointment, rejection
  • Purple: capricious
  • Green: St. Patrick’s Day

It’s fun to think about the meaning of a flower given or received. If you get one, what does it mean?

Have fun deciphering the message. Hopefully it’s the thought that counts and that it’s meant in goodwill!

Florist carnations last approximately two weeks due to cultivation of thicker stems and larger blooms. Here’s how to care for your bouquet:

Change the water at least once in the middle of their two week run.

Cut off the ends of the stems at a diagonal after one week. The cut stems eliminate the old healed-up cuts that block water flow. Stems are again open to take up water.

An evergreen Dianthus in winter.
Evergreen Dianthus in winter functions as ground cover all year.


In the garden, perennial dianthus surprises because it looks different from the florist’s carnation.

Small clumps of thin silver green leaves surround thin stems. The stems stand above the leaves holding small flowers.

Petals are open with cut or crinkly edges. Another name for it is “Pink.”

As an evergreen, low-growing mound, silver grey leaves make good ground cover even when the plant is not in bloom.

It flowers in early summer, some with beautiful spicy scents. Good for front of the border. It needs full sun most of the day.

Plant in well drained soil. Too much water may cause crown rot.

Height varies from three inches to one foot. It attracts butterflies and hummingbirds. Deer don’t like them.


Compared to the perennial, the annual dianthus likes cooler temps. Partial shade or better, eastern sun will keep it from drying out.

It’s low growing and great at edges of containers or at the front of the garden border.

It’s flowers differ from the florist carnation because the blooms are small.

Some blooms may resemble the bunched petals of carnations. Other cultivars have open single petals instead.

Start from seed or buy as a young plant. Dead head to keep blooms coming all summer.

Carnation, January’s birth flower, celebrates life all year. Whether bought as a bouquet or grown in the smaller perennial or annual versions by gardeners, enjoy them!


Flower Meaning

Flower Shop Network

Garden Guides


Copyright 2020 Juli Seyfried

Cyclamen: Butterfly Blooms of Winter

Colorful cyclamen brings a little spring inside the winter home. Easy to care for too!

Cyclamen flowers almost look like butterflies.
Cyclamen flowers imitate a butterfly shape.

Cool foggy morning on a San Francisco street in winter some years ago. Heading downhill, feet hitting a dry sidewalk, I see giant cement planters evenly spaced along the curb as I go.

Inside each planter surrounding a pale grey tree trunk, the deep pink flowers of cyclamen stand just above dark green leaves. So captivating!

Pink petals are open like butterflies poised for nectar. Layers of dark green, heart shaped leaves with pale green patterns, cluster in a circle below.

Cyclamen growing outdoors in winter surprises this Midwesterner. Blooms are for indoors. 

Available during the holiday season, blooming cyclamen adds beauty indoors. The freshness of a living flowering plant lasts through weeks and weeks of cold grey days.

Flowers make you happy during winter but also growing in the right spot indoors they look happy!

How do you care for the one you were given or bought during the holidays? Let’s find out.

Cyclamen leaf is heart shaped with light green on top of dark green background.
Heart shaped leaf of the cyclamen with variegation in a lighter shade of green.

Features of Cyclamen persicum

This is the florist version of the hardy cyclamen which grows outdoors.

Native to:  Algeria to eastern Mediterranean.

Name refers to: The round shape ot the tuber. The name is derived from the Greek word for circle.

Zones: 9-11

Leaves:  Rounded, heart-shaped, deep green with pale green variegations.

Blooms: Pink to red to white, lavender to purple. Five petals loosely cluster together.

Height: 6-8 inches

Width: Depends upon the size pot you buy. The number of tubers in each pot varies. They come in pots from very small to large.

Grows from:  Tuber.


  • Hopefully you got a plant that has a lot of buds about to bloom. Flowers last for several months.
  • Sunlight:  Keep it in a sunny but cool location. Heat sources like furnace vents, dryers and ovens create a too-hot environment.
  • Soil:  Average to slightly acidic.
  • Water:  Once a week water from the bottom of the plant. Place the pot in a tray of water.  Check to see that the top of the soil is moist and then remove the pot.

Cyclamen likes moist but not wet soil. Overwatering rots the tubers.

  • Fertilize:  Not necessary for the indoor florist version. 


Mites are parasites which are too small to see with the naked eye. They cause damage before you know they are there. The larvae feed on new plant growth.

The growth is stunted. For example, buds may form but wither before having a chance to bloom.

There are a couple of solutions.

You can throw it out so your other plants aren’t infected.

You can use an organic insecticidal spray and follow directions.

Prevent mites from developing by keeping the humidity low. Indoors in winter this should not be a problem as the air is dry.

From underneath, cyclamen flower looks more like a hat.
Cyclamen flower looks like a hat from underside.


Cyclamen is a seasonal indoor plant.  Most people enjoy the blooms through the winter.  The foliage is pretty even without flowers. Throw it out once it finishes blooming and loses its leaves.

Can‘t I grow it year round?

Sometimes it’s fun to see if you can grow a plant that others say probably won’t grow or rebloom.  Cyclamen is one of those plants.

I tried regrowing the plant once and succeeded. However, it did not produce any blooms.

Maybe you’ll do better than I did. Give it a try!  Here’s some tips:

1. When it stops blooming and the leaves die back, remove the leaves. Reduce watering gradually, then stop watering.

2. Put the pot in a cool spot and let the tubers dry.  You can also take them out of the pot and pack them in dry peat moss.  They are dormant just like summer bulbs that you save over winter.

3. Midsummer, repot in fresh soil and place in a sunny window or in partial shade outside.

4. Water the pot regularly from the bottom to keep the tubers from getting too wet.  

5. When foliage begins to grow place the pot in a cool spot to encourage blooms.

Cyclamen is a beautiful and easy to maintain flowering plant for indoors. It’s hard to say goodbye to the butterfly blooms when the season is over. But by then it’s spring and new flowers outdoors will entrance you!


Missouri Botanical Garden

North Carolina State University Extension

USDA Resources Conservation Service

Copyright 2019 Juli Seyfried

Paperwhite Narcissus and December Birthdays

Paperwhite Narcissus grows indoors on stones set in water.
Paperwhite Narcissus displays abundant flowers indoors.
Photo: Pixabay

December birthdays share the month with the anticipation, preparation and celebration of several holidays.  Paperwhite Narcissus is considered the birthday flower for December.

While there are many birthday bouquets to buy at the florist, Narcissus is not available.

If you want a bouquet of December’s birth flower you’ll have to grow your own. There are kits or bags of bulbs to buy although maybe not in time to grow a bouquet for a December birthday.

Holly and Poinsettia are also mentioned as flowers for December birthdays, but Narcissus is listed most often.

The first two are usually related to Christmas traditions which may or may not matter to some.

Birth months throughout history have been celebrated with a special flower to mark the month.  Did the tradition begin with the flower that was in season, the one flower that grew in abundance that month? I’m guessing so.

In different parts of the world, Narcissus grows easily because the climate and soil conditions are just right. In colder areas of the U.S., daffodil, a common name for the narcissus pops out of the ground in spring.

Paperwhite Narcissus or Narcissus tazetta in colder zones, is grown as a forced bulb indoors in November through February or March.

It symbolizes faithfulness.  Maybe it should also symbolize adaptability or being accommodating?

Since December birthdays share the month with many holidays and the birth flower isn’t available, being adaptable goes with having a birthday in December.

Poinsettias are alternative to Narcissus because they are available for sale.
Poinsettias are an alternate flower to give the December birthday person in your life.

About December Birthdays

The closer it is to one of the holidays, the harder it may be for the birthday person to feel special, since most of the month’s focus is on group holidays. One person’s birthday party might seem over the top – too much partying!

Alas! It puts family and friends to the test to prove they care by making sure December birthday-ers feel important.

In my case, my family celebrates Christmas. I know of four people with birthdays in December: my parents, a close friend and me.

Both of my parents have birthdays close to Christmas.

Unfortunately, my Dad is one who felt slighted by having his birthday on the 24th. His memory was of sharing his big day with a brother and sister.

Each of them was allowed to open a Christmas present on his birthday.  I’m guessing it was to keep them happy.  He did not get to open any gifts for himself on their birthdays later in the year.

My family always had a big celebration for him on his day, including his favorite food and drink. Although gone now, I honor his memory with his favorite food, minus the fruitcake with caramel sauce, on Christmas Eve.

Apparently he did like some holiday-specific food for his birthday! And my aunt made a fruitcake and mailed it to him every year in time for his big day.

Mom’s memory of her birthday close to Christmas is one she remembers fondly.  She was told that Santa came early and hung her on the Christmas tree with a big red bow!

Since her day is a few days away from December 25 it’s easier to separate her celebration from that day.  Honoring her birthday is usually lunch or dinner with gifts.

She’s happy that her children remember her day with cards, phone calls and most especially if they can be with her in person.

My best friend from college has a mid-December birthday. Just right! Not too close to either Thanksgiving or Christmas. We send each other humorous or serious cards depending on the mood and/or age that year.

What a relief to share the same number birthday with a friend whose date is ten days after mine!  It’s one of many things we have in common.

My birthday is at the beginning of December, close enough to Thanksgiving that sometimes it was celebrated during that weekend, not the day of.  Family/friends were available then but often not on my exact day.

I imagine there are many who have birthdays they celebrate close to the actual date but not the day of. It’s important to share the event with those who care about us and make us feel special.

For me, Thanksgiving is the beginning of party season and my birthday rolls into a month long celebration ending with New Year’s Eve. It’s a happy time of year for me.

If my gifts were wrapped in holiday paper I don’t remember.  My favorite cake as a child had white coconut frosting and red and white peppermint candy canes on it.

My day is far enough away from Christmas that it feels more like a hint of what’s to come.

Creating traditions using cues from the season at hand makes a birthday unique. Flowers are a part of happiness – making, even if some of us have to grow our birth flower.

How to Grow Narcissus


Native to:  Southern Europe and North Africa

Name refers to:  In Greek mythology, Narcissus falls in love with his reflection in a pool of water. (By contrast, December birthdays don’t have much time for self indulgence – it’s group time!)

Zones:  8-11

Leaves:  Long straps of green stand upright.  

Blooms:  Small, fragrant trumpet shaped flowers.

Height: 8-20 inches depending on the cultivar.

Grows from:   Bulbs.

Grows: Inside as a forced bulb.

Three waterproof pots to grow Paperwhite Narcissus.
Examples of three kinds of waterproof pots for growing Paperwhite Narcissus.

Paperwhite narcissus grows easily indoors in pots filled with stones and water.  Here’s how:


  • Shallow (3-4 inches high) waterproof pot without drainage holes – like glazed ceramic flower pots, coffee cups, glass bowls.
  • Clean gravel or stones.
  • Water.


  • Place 1-2 inches of stones in bottom of pot.
  • Set bulbs on top with flat side resting on stones, top pointy side up.
  • Put some stones around bulbs to keep bulbs in place.
  • Add water just to the bottom of the bulbs.  Caution: don’t let bulbs sit in water as they will rot.
  • Place in a cool sunny window.
  • As green shoots come up rotate the pot slightly every couple of days.  This will keep the shoots growing straight and not bending toward the light.
  • If the leaves and flowers begin to flop over, place a small stake in the center. Tie twine or raffia to the stake. Gather the falling leaves and wrap them in a circle of twine and tie it to the twine itself.

In approximately 2-3 weeks they bloom.  Flowers last about 1-2 weeks.

Some people plant these bulbs in succession to keep the flowers coming. Bulbs planted in succession make the display last throughout winter.

To do this, either divide up the bulbs you bought and save some or buy a couple of packages. Have a few extra waterproof containers ready, as well as clean stones.

Follow the directions above, but plant another pot two weeks after you planted the first set of bulbs. Plant yet another pot two weeks after the second set.

Once bloom time is over plants are finished and unlikely to bloom again. You can throw them out or if organically grown throw them in the compost pile.


Brighten up any room with a cool, sunny window. Their fragrance makes you think spring is here even when it’s cold, gray and nasty outside with six more weeks of winter to go!

December’s not the only month with a lot to do. Activities and celebrations happen all year long. Remeber a birthday in a special way and time of year doesn’t matter. Just don’t make them grow their own birth flower!


Cornell University College of Agriculture and Life Sciences

NC State Extension


Chrysanthemum: Fall Friendship Flower

Hardy mums are easy mainstays in the fall garden. Florist mums brighten the house with long-lasting blooms any time. What’s their special quality beyond beauty?

Red mums with yellow centers.
Hardy Chrysanthemum

November babies, this is your flower. It’s been a sign of friendship since Victorian times.

The chrysanthemum has different symbolic meanings in countries like China, Japan, Australia, Belgium and Austria. For most in the U.S., it’s a beautiful flower that’s in abundance in the fall.

There are two ways to buy them:  hardy mums to grow in the garden or florist mums to dress up your house.

Garden Mum


Native to: Asia and Northeastern Europe.

Name refers to: Greek words for gold and flower.

Zones:  5-9, although some may be grown in Zones 3 and 4 – check the plant’s label.

Leaves:  Small dark green, three lobe leaf. It’s shape reminds you of a little animal’s paw.

Blooms: Many shades from gold to bronze to red, purple, pink, white and off white. One bloom is made of hundreds of smaller petals called florets. 

These florets have many different shapes. The National Chrysanthemum Society has listed 13 classes of bloom forms.

Bloom Time:  Depending on the cultivar, mums bloom early July, early fall in September or late fall in October. Flowering lasts 4-8 weeks.

Height: 1-2 feet sometimes 3 feet depending on the cultivar.

Width:  1-2 feet

Grows from:  Seeds, cuttings and divisions. Many people buy full grown plants in pots.

Seeds:  Planting seeds may not grow true to the color of the parent plant. Follow package directions.

Cuttings:  Taken in spring when pinching to control growth. Root the cuttings and transplant.

Divisions:  After a few years, a woody stem develops in the middle of the plant.

Dig up the whole plant and separate the young, newer plants from the outer edge of the root ball.

Plant in a new spot in the bed for pest control and to prevent disease.

Attracts:  Butterflies.


  • Location: Find a place where it will be protected from the wind. Plant far enough apart from other plants for good air circulation to keep diseases from developing.
  • Sunlight:  Full sun but protected from late afternoon sun.
  • Soil:  High in organic matter that drains well.
  • Water: Frequent watering to keep soil moist but not wet.  Root rot occurs if the soil is too wet.
  • Fertilize: They’re considered heavy feeders. Feed monthly with an organic, water soluble fertilizer spring through July.
  • Pinching: To keep the plant small and bushy, pinch off the branches as they grow.

Pinch between your finger nails above the second set of leaves. This will cause it to branch.

Do this from the time they reach six inches tall until early summer.  Pinching also prevents leggy growth that causes the plant to flop over.

  • Winter Protection:  Sometimes they will survive the winter, sometimes not even if your plant is designated winter hardy for your area.

In late fall, after blooming, cut back to 6 inches.  Mulch with straw or pine straw.

These mulches are loose and open enough to provide protection from the cold, but still allow air to circulate to prevent the roots from getting too wet. 


Many pests:  Aphids, spider mites and thrips.

Many diseases:  Powdery mildew, rust, stem and root rot, viruses.

To prevent problems, rotate their spot in the garden when you divide them every few years.


Perennial or annual containers, edging for borders, grouped together for large displays.

White mums with yellow centers.
Bouquet of florist Chrysanthemum.

Florist Mum

These are the beautiful indoor flowers that are enjoyed for over a month and then thrown out.

Potted version:

Buy one that has more buds than open flowers to enjoy the show longer.

Blooms approximately 6-8 weeks.

Known for its air cleaning qualities.


  • Can place in a decorative pot that has no drainage holes.  This protects the counter or furniture surface from water damage.

A saucer underneath the potted plant will do the same.

  • Keep in a cool but sunny spot. Cooler temperatures make blooms last.
  • Keep soil evenly moist. Water generally twice a week.

Test top inch of soil with your finger. If dry, thoroughly water it at the sink. Let water drain completely before putting it back in its spot.

  • Throw out when it’s done blooming. Avoid the compost pile because the plant has been treated with chemicals to make it grow to the size and shape that is sold at the store.

Bouquet of Mums:

Last approximately 2 weeks.

Change the water at least once during that time.

Cut the ends of the stems as the original cuts have closed up. This allows fresh water to get to the blooms. Flowers will last longer.

Chrysanthemum’s Other Quality

In addition to cleaning the indoor air, outdoors the mum has another role. The flower of a particular species is turned into a natural insecticide.

An extract from the flower is toxic to most insects. When exposed to this substance it can numb and kill them.

Unfortunately, this substance is toxic to beneficial insects, fish and amphibians too. Although it’s a natural insecticide, use carefully following package directions.

You really want to target the infested plant without spraying other plants. By targeting you reduce harm to beneficial insects and reduce water pollution runoff.  

Whether you buy the chrysanthemum for indoor or outdoor decoration or use an insecticide product made from its flowers, the mum is a mainstay of the fall garden.


EXTOXNET Extension Toxicology Network

FTD by Design

National Chrysanthemum Society, USA

Copyright Juli Seyfried 2019

Apples: Versatile Stars

Crabapples on tree branch.
Photo from Pixabay

Apples are so versatile with so many uses people almost overlook them or take them for granted.

They’re nutritious and benefit your health in many ways helping to prevent some diseases.

Although sweet on their own, treats like apple pie add something special to a meal.

You can grow your own and within a few years of planting they’re ready to pick.

But there’s more to apples than eating. This is the second part of two articles about these globes. Experience some of their other star qualities!

Pink crabapple flowers.
Crabapple flowers
Photo from Pixabay

Decorative Crabapple Trees

Besides growing your own tree for fruit there is a decorative version:  the crabapple tree. This four season beauty is worthy of a spot in your yard.

In spring, it’s covered in small fragrant blossoms that capture your nose long before you see the tree.

It’s the kind of scent that makes people forget to watch where they’re walking – running into street signs or falling off curbs.

Summer’s bronzy green leaves cover the tree, hiding the growing clusters of fruit.

Fall leaves turn colors yellow to red. Small apples like ornaments, hang in plain sight all over the tree.

Winter, some apples remain and stand out from the dark bark on the twisting branches.  

Red crabapples frozen in ice on tree branch.
Crabapples in ice.
Photo from Pixabay


Genus:  Malus

Name refers to:  Tree with small bitter fruit that is edible in jellies.

Zones:  4-8

Leaves:  Small deep green to bronzy color in summer. Varieties have leaves that turn yellow, orange, red or purple in fall.

Blooms:  In April beautiful buds open to flowers of white, various shades of pale to deep pink depending on the variety.

Fruit:  Small yellow, orange red to deep red apples that are too bitter for basic eating.  It makes a good tart jelly.

Trunks:  Pretty, gnarled shape that looks like a statue in winter. Snow on bark is a bonus.

Height: 15-20 feet

Spread:  12-20 feet

Attracts:  Pollinators like bees and butterflies. Birds love the fruit later in the season.

Crabapple trunk, branches. leaves in fall.
Fall Crabapple tree
Photo from Pixabay


Sunlight:  Full sun

Soil:  Well-drained, tolerates clay soil

Water:  Medium

Fertilize:  Add compost once a year


Considered a low maintenance tree if you get a disease and pest resistant variety.

People who cut the grass find fallen apples may damage the mower blades.  Plant in a large bed where fallen fruit can just decompose.

May develop scab, fireblight, rust or powdery mildew.

Insect problems include aphids, borers, Japanese beetles, scale, spider mites and tent caterpillars.

More Star Qualities

Experience versatile apples in events, art, crafts, stories and sayings. You’re surrounded by their sight and tart smell!

Rows of candy and carmel apples.
Carmel and candy apples
Photo from Pixabay

Celebrations of apples:

Festivals: Across the country you can find many apple festivals usually from September to mid October. Think about it now and plan a fall trip for next year.

Each festival is unique reflecting the town or area where it is held. Apples and products made from them are the stars of the festival.

Here are some activities you may find: judging of apples, pies and jellies; arts and crafts with the fruit.

More activities: parades, musical entertainment, how-to demonstrations, games, rides, hayrides and art shows.

Apple-picking at farms who may also host events or sell products made from apples.

Bobbing for apples is a game usually played at Halloween parties. Get a large tub at least 18 inches in diameter, fill with water and throw some fresh ones in. Watch them float on top.

You kneel on the ground with hands behind your back. Try to grab one with your teeth. Not as easy as it looks!

If the tub is big enough two people can bob at the same time. Winner is the one who gets it first. You can also time the contestant to see how long it takes. Shortest time wins.

Or set a timer for a minute and see who can get one in that time. If you get the apple it’s yours.


Dolls: Make a doll head out of a dried apple. Make a body, attach the dried apple head and dress it to complete the doll. There are many instructions on line for how to make one.

Half an apple.
Half apple ready for print making.
Photo from Pixabay

Apple Art: Young children may use them as a tool to make sculptures or prints. To make a print use half an apple as a stamp. Cut a whole one in half. Let it dry for a little bit so juice doesn’t interfere with paint.

Put a little acrylic paint on a paper plate. Take one of the dried halves and dip the cut side evenly into the paint. Press onto a piece of paper. What designs can you make?

Painting of wooden bowl of apples.
Current painting of apples in still life.
Image from Pixabay


Apples are the main subject in paintings by famous artists.

Vincent Van Gogh painted Still Life with Apples, Paul Gaugin painted Apples in Bowl, and Paul Cezanne painted The Basket of Apples.

Maybe this fruit was in season and handy to grab, display and paint? These are only three of many works of art with apples as the main subject or as part of a larger scene.

Tree trunk surrounded by fallen green apples.
Fallen apples
Photo from Pixabay

Stories from history

Sir Isaac Newton (1642/43-1727), an English physicist and mathematician had an experience with the humble apple that inspired him to think about gravity.

While drinking tea under apple trees, a ripe one fell from a tree to the ground. Thinking about “why and how” later contributed to the development of the universal law of gravity.

John Chapman aka Johnny Appleseed ( 1774-1845), was a traveling nurseryman who planted nurseries and apple orchards throughout Pennsylvania, Ohio and Indiana.

The fruit from these trees were good only for making hard cider and applejack. Orchards were a legal way to make a land claim.

He’d plant an orchard and create a nursery, then leave to create another somewhere else. He’d return in a few years to sell the first one off.

He dressed simply, often without shoes, wearing a tin hat. He believed in no harm to animals or other living creatures. His life and work made him a folk hero.

A few old sayings starring apples:

One slice of apple pie.
Slice of apple pie
Photo from Pixabay

As American as apple pie.

An apple a day keeps the doctor away.

The apple doesn’t fall too far from the tree.

An apple for the teacher…

“Apple polisher” – name given to a person trying to impress someone.

Apples are wide spread in the world. They’re recognized in all sorts of food products, health benefits, celebrations and artistic uses. They’re everyday stars of life!


Wikiart Visual Art Encyclopedia

Copyright 2019 Juli Seyfried